Mildew-Free, Fast Processing of Thermosetting Resins

Written by admin

The print medium in direct ink writing (DIW) is within the liquid part (ink) that’s disbursed out of the nozzle underneath managed circulate charges to be deposited in a pre-defined path to manufacture three-dimensional (3D) buildings layer-by-layer.

Mold-Free, Quick Processing of Thermosetting Resins​​​​​​​

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Research: Additive manufacturing of nanotube-loaded thermosets through direct ink writing and radio-frequency heating and curing. Picture Credit score: MarinaGrigorivna/

Whereas the standard DIW of thermosetting resins is determined by viscosity, cross-linking chemistries, and curing in an oven, the brand new strategy printed within the journal Carbon mentioned using a radio frequency (RF) applicator for spontaneous heating of composite resins in additive manufacturing.

The co-planar RF applicator generated an electrical discipline that was used to shortly warmth and remedy composite resins throughout additive manufacturing, avoiding a further step for curing the samples. The print-and-cure repetitive cycle within the current strategy allowed the printing of multilayered buildings with excessive decision.

The RF applicator partially cured the extruded layer earlier than the deposition of the following layer, sustaining the structural integrity of the printed half. In comparison with the standard manufacturing course of, the present methodology decreased the contact time and elevated throughput. Thus, the current work demonstrated that RF heating is a handy different to conventional oven-based curing strategies.

Additive Manufacturing in 3D Printing

Heating and curing the thermosetting polymers type cross-linked networks that function excessive mechanical power, thermal stability, and resistance to chemical degradation. These properties make thermosets fascinating for numerous functions in batteries, aerospace, and automotive buildings.

Typical thermosetting polymer manufacturing strategies use molds for curing the resin matrices in a high-temperature oven. Nonetheless, these strategies are sluggish, eat excessive power and labor, and require part-specific molds which can be tough to realize.

The above limitations of typical manufacturing strategies are overcome by additive manufacturing, permitting sooner and extra environment friendly manufacturing of buildings with custom-made geometries. 3D printing is an additive manufacturing approach for fabricating a variety of buildings and complicated geometries from 3D mannequin information. The method consists of printing successive layers of supplies, shaped on prime of one another.

Additive manufacturing of cross-linkable resins utilizing DIW printing was beforehand restricted to photocurable supplies. Though this 3D printing might be utilized to print dual-cure resins, these required incorporating photocurable supplies into thermosets to fabricate mild and chemically activated resin.

Nonetheless, the dual-cure methodology alters the resin chemistry and makes the fabric ultraviolet (UV) curable, limiting using photocurable resins. Then again, thermoset’s additive manufacturing primarily based on frontal polymerization (FROMP) includes propagating response wave that enables the preliminary monomer’s fast cross-linking. Nonetheless, this methodology restricts the variety of printable resin chemistries.

Additive Manufacturing through DIW and RF Heating and Curing

RF heating has higher power effectivity and low infrastructure requirement, offering sooner heating charges than typical heating strategies. Thus, changing conventional ovens with non-contact RF applicators can allow out-of-oven curing in additive manufacturing.

Whereas earlier research highlighted the fabrication of multilayered buildings utilizing RF heating for curing carbon nanotube (CNT)-filled thermosetting epoxies. The current research demonstrated a brand new course of that concerned layer-by-layer, print, and remedy cycles for multilayered additive manufacturing.

The strategies reported up to now had restricted decision of the printed multilayered construction as a result of warmth diffusion within the resin reservoir, resulting in tough edges and surfaces. Nonetheless, the current methodology resulted within the high-resolution of the fabricated multilayered buildings with clean surfaces and void-free morphology, demonstrating some great benefits of RF heating in additive manufacturing.

Within the current research, every printed layer utilizing a DIW printer was partially cured utilizing RF heating earlier than the deposition of the following layer. The print-cure cycle helped preserve the integrity of the printed construction, supporting itself with out collapsing the following printed layers.

Though earlier research talked about using RF heating for curing CNT-filled thermosetting epoxies, the current work highlighted the adjustments in rheological properties of the resin on the addition of CNTs, permitting DIW of resin with out the halfway collapsing of the print. Furthermore, the addition of CNTs improved {the electrical} conductivity of the resins.


To summarize, a novel methodology was demonstrated for additive manufacturing of thermoset nanocomposites through DIW. The repetitive cycle of print-and-cure allowed the development of multilayered thermoset elements, avoiding using novel chemistries or viscosity modifying brokers in additive manufacturing.

The RF response and rheological properties of the resin had been analyzed with completely different carbon nanotube loadings, evaluating the acceptable carbon nanotube loading earlier than printing advanced shapes with excessive decision. Thermochemical characterization of printed resins confirmed that the pattern cured through RF heating had larger storage moduli values than oven-cured samples.

Moreover, RF-cured samples confirmed higher power in tensile testing than their oven-cured counterparts on account of void-free and clean morphology obtained through the RF curing course of, as noticed in scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures.

The current work demonstrated DIW printing and localized RF heating as a handy strategy for additive manufacturing thermoset nanocomposites. Simulation outcomes confirmed the prospects of additive manufacturing methodology in free-form printing of advanced shapes.


Sarmah, A et al. (2022). Additive manufacturing of nanotube-loaded thermosets through direct ink writing and radio-frequency heating and curing. Carbon.

Disclaimer: The views expressed listed below are these of the writer expressed of their personal capability and don’t essentially characterize the views of Restricted T/A AZoNetwork the proprietor and operator of this web site. This disclaimer types a part of the Phrases and circumstances of use of this web site.

About the author


Leave a Comment